We perform blast-characterization analysis of deflagrations, deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) and detonations for onshore and offshore facilities exposed to accidental hydrocarbon release environments. We use a variety of methods to accurately estimate building-envelope applied loads and line-of-site loads from vapor-cloud explosions. Analytical approaches include the TNO (the Netherlands Organisation for applied scientific research) multi-energy and BST (Baker and Strehlow-Tang) methods. Our fast-running computational fluid dynamic modeling method propagates VCE blast loads to account for shielding, channeling, and reentrant corner effects not provided in line-of-site methodologies.
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