Hail storms pose substantial risks to property and an array of challenges to various stakeholders, including insurance companies, roof manufacturers, and owners and design teams making decisions on the serviceability of exterior materials. This paper introduces an analytical model that can simulate hail impact (see also simulation videos). The analytical modeling platform allows for the study of boundless parameters, systems and materials, while mitigating the often labor-intensive costs and material waste associated with physical testing. In addition, the use of a material model is expected to lead to more realistic results than the steel and ice impactors used in standard tests. The developed analysis methodology provides profound basis for prediction of extent of damage due to hailstorms, which can benefit risk and insurance calculations as well as design of future hail-resistant structures.
hail storm, hail-resistant, strain-rate-dependent model, non-linear ductile fracture model, metal roofing